Date de publication: 2021

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Background/aim: The spectrum of ATP7B variants varies significantly according to geographic distribution, and there is insufficient data on the variants observed in the French population.
Methods: Clinical data of 113 children included in the French WD national registry were gathered from March 01, 1995 to July 01, 2020. Data included epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, genetics.
Results: Diagnosis was made at a mean age of 11.0 ± 4.1 years (range 1–18 years). At diagnosis, 91 patients (79.8 %) had hepatic manifestations, 18 (15.8 %) presented neurological manifestations, and 4 patients (3.5 %) were asymptomatic. Only 29 patients (25 %) were homozygous for a variant. We have found a total of 102 different variants including 14 novel variants. Recurrent variant p.His1069Gln was the most prevalent, n = 31 alleles (14,2%), with only seven homozygous; in contrast 55% of variants are identified in only one family. 45% were truncating variants. In respect of mutated exon, the three most prevalent were exon 14 (16.5%), exon 8 (13.8%), and exon 3 (11.5%). When considering patients with two Nonsense / Frameshift variants as a group and those with two Missense variants, we found significantly lower ceruloplasmin for the former: 2.8 ± 0.7 mg/dl vs 8.4 ± 5mg/dl (p<0.05).
Conclusion: p.His1069Gln is the most frequent variant (14,2%) and exons 14, 8, and 2 of the ATP7B gene account for 41.7% of total variants. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the French population concerning the other ATP7B variants. Nonsense / Frameshift variants were associated with lower ceruloplasmin levels.